HTTPie: a CLI, cURL-like tool for humans

HTTPie (pronounced aitch-tee-tee-pie) is a command line HTTP client. Its goal is to make CLI interaction with web services as human-friendly as possible. It provides a simple http command that allows for sending arbitrary HTTP requests using a simple and natural syntax, and displays colorized output. HTTPie can be used for testing, debugging, and generally interacting with HTTP servers.

HTTPie compared to cURL

Latest version released on PyPi Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux Build status of the master branch on Windows Test coverage Chat on Gitter

Contents

1   Main features

  • Expressive and intuitive syntax
  • Formatted and colorized terminal output
  • Built-in JSON support
  • Forms and file uploads
  • HTTPS, proxies, and authentication
  • Arbitrary request data
  • Custom headers
  • Persistent sessions
  • Wget-like downloads
  • Python 2.6, 2.7 and 3.x support
  • Linux, Mac OS X and Windows support
  • Plugins
  • Documentation
  • Test coverage

2   Installation

2.1   macOS

On macOS, HTTPie can be installed via Homebrew (recommended):

$ brew install httpie

A MacPorts port is also available:

$ port install httpie

2.2   Linux

Most Linux distributions provide a package that can be installed using the system package manager, for example:

# Debian, Ubuntu, etc.
$ apt-get install httpie
# Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, …
$ yum install httpie
# Arch Linux
$ pacman -S httpie

2.3   Windows, etc.

A universal installation method (that works on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, …, and always provides the latest version) is to use pip:

# Make sure we have an up-to-date version of pip and setuptools:
$ pip install --upgrade pip setuptools

$ pip install --upgrade httpie

(If pip installation fails for some reason, you can try easy_install httpie as a fallback.)

2.4   Python version

Although Python 2.6 and 2.7 are supported as well, it is recommended to install HTTPie against the latest Python 3.x whenever possible. That will ensure that some of the newer HTTP features, such as SNI (Server Name Indication), work out of the box. Python 3 is the default for Homebrew installations starting with version 0.9.4. To see which version HTTPie uses, run http --debug.

2.5   Unstable version

You can also instead of the latest the latest unreleased development version directly from the master branch on GitHub. It is a work-in-progress of a future stable release so the experience might be not as smooth.

Build status of the master branch on Mac/Linux Build status of the master branch on Windows

On macOS you can install it with Homebrew:

$ brew install httpie --HEAD

Otherwise with pip:

$ pip install --upgrade https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz

Verify that now we have the current development version identifier with the -dev suffix, for example:

$ http --version
1.0.0-dev

3   Usage

Hello World:

$ http httpie.org

Synopsis:

$ http [flags] [METHOD] URL [ITEM [ITEM]]

See also http --help.

3.1   Examples

Custom HTTP method, HTTP headers and JSON data:

$ http PUT example.org X-API-Token:123 name=John

Submitting forms:

$ http -f POST example.org hello=World

See the request that is being sent using one of the output options:

$ http -v example.org

Use Github API to post a comment on an issue with authentication:

$ http -a USERNAME POST https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie/issues/83/comments body='HTTPie is awesome! :heart:'

Upload a file using redirected input:

$ http example.org < file.json

Download a file and save it via redirected output:

$ http example.org/file > file

Download a file wget style:

$ http --download example.org/file

Use named sessions to make certain aspects or the communication persistent between requests to the same host:

$ http --session=logged-in -a username:password httpbin.org/get API-Key:123

$ http --session=logged-in httpbin.org/headers

Set a custom Host header to work around missing DNS records:

$ http localhost:8000 Host:example.com

4   HTTP method

The name of the HTTP method comes right before the URL argument:

$ http DELETE example.org/todos/7

Which looks similar to the actual Request-Line that is sent:

DELETE /todos/7 HTTP/1.1

When the METHOD argument is omitted from the command, HTTPie defaults to either GET (with no request data) or POST (with request data).

5   Request URL

The only information HTTPie needs to perform a request is a URL. The default scheme is, somewhat unsurprisingly, http://, and can be omitted from the argument – http example.org works just fine.

5.1   Querystring parameters

If you find yourself manually constructing URLs with querystring parameters on the terminal, you may appreciate the param==value syntax for appending URL parameters. With that, you don't have to worry about escaping the & separators for your shell. Also, special characters in parameter values, will also automatically escaped (HTTPie otherwise expects the URL to be already escaped). To search for HTTPie logo on Google Images you could use this command:

$ http www.google.com search=='HTTPie logo' tbm==isch
GET /?search=HTTPie+logo&tbm=isch HTTP/1.1

5.2   URL shortcuts for localhost

Additionally, curl-like shorthand for localhost is supported. This means that, for example :3000 would expand to http://localhost:3000 If the port is omitted, then port 80 is assumed.

$ http :/foo
GET /foo HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
$ http :3000/bar
GET /bar HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:3000
$ http :
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost

5.3   Custom default scheme

You can use the --default-scheme <URL_SCHEME> option to create shortcuts for other protocols than HTTP:

$ alias https='http --default-scheme=https'

6   Request items

There are a few different request item types that provide a convenient mechanism for specifying HTTP headers, simple JSON and form data, files, and URL parameters.

They are key/value pairs specified after the URL. All have in common that they become part of the actual request that is sent and that their type is distinguished only by the separator used: :, =, :=, ==, @, =@, and :=@. The ones with an @ expect a file path as value.

Item Type Description
HTTP Headers Name:Value Arbitrary HTTP header, e.g. X-API-Token:123.
URL parameters name==value Appends the given name/value pair as a query string parameter to the URL. The == separator is used.
Data Fields field=value, field=@file.txt Request data fields to be serialized as a JSON object (default), or to be form-encoded (--form, -f).
Raw JSON fields field:=json, field:=@file.json Useful when sending JSON and one or more fields need to be a Boolean, Number, nested Object, or an Array, e.g., meals:='["ham","spam"]' or pies:=[1,2,3] (note the quotes).
Form File Fields field@/dir/file Only available with --form, -f. For example screenshot@~/Pictures/img.png. The presence of a file field results in a multipart/form-data request.

Note that data fields aren't the only way to specify request data: Redirected input is a mechanism for passing arbitrary data request request.

6.1   Escaping rules

You can use \ to escape characters that shouldn't be used as separators (or parts thereof). For instance, foo\==bar will become a data key/value pair (foo= and bar) instead of a URL parameter.

Often it is necessary to quote the values, e.g. foo='bar baz'.

If any of the field names or headers starts with a minus (e.g., -fieldname), you need to place all such items after the special token -- to prevent confusion with --arguments:

$ http httpbin.org/post  --  -name-starting-with-dash=foo -Unusual-Header:bar
POST /post HTTP/1.1
-Unusual-Header: bar
Content-Type: application/json

{
    "-name-starting-with-dash": "value"
}

7   JSON

JSON is the lingua franca of modern web services and it is also the implicit content type HTTPie by default uses.

Simple example:

$ http PUT example.org name=John email=john@example.org
PUT / HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: example.org

{
    "name": "John",
    "email": "john@example.org"
}

7.1   Default behaviour

If your command includes some data request items, they are serialized as a JSON object by default. HTTPie also automatically sets the following headers, both of which can be overwritten:

Content-Type application/json
Accept application/json, */*

7.2   Explicit JSON

You can use --json, -j to explicitly set Accept to application/json regardless of whether you are sending data (it's a shortcut for setting the header via the usual header notation: http url Accept:'application/json, */*'). Additionally, HTTPie will try to detect JSON responses even when the Content-Type is incorrectly text/plain or unknown.

7.3   Non-string JSON fields

Non-string fields use the := separator, which allows you to embed raw JSON into the resulting object. Text and raw JSON files can also be embedded into fields using =@ and :=@:

$ http PUT api.example.com/person/1 \
    name=John \
    age:=29 married:=false hobbies:='["http", "pies"]' \  # Raw JSON
    description=@about-john.txt \   # Embed text file
    bookmarks:=@bookmarks.json      # Embed JSON file
PUT /person/1 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*
Content-Type: application/json
Host: api.example.com

{
    "age": 29,
    "hobbies": [
        "http",
        "pies"
    ],
    "description": "John is a nice guy who likes pies.",
    "married": false,
    "name": "John",
    "bookmarks": {
        "HTTPie": "http://httpie.org",
    }
}

Please note that with this syntax the command gets unwieldy when sending complex data. In that case it's always better to use redirected input:

$ http POST api.example.com/person/1 < person.json

8   Forms

Submitting forms is very similar to sending JSON requests. Often the only difference is in adding the --form, -f option, which ensures that data fields are serialized as, and Content-Type is set to, application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8. It is possible to make form data the implicit content type instead of JSON via the config file.

8.1   Regular forms

$ http --form POST api.example.org/person/1 name='John Smith'
POST /person/1 HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8

name=John+Smith

8.2   File upload forms

If one or more file fields is present, the serialization and content type is multipart/form-data:

$ http -f POST example.com/jobs name='John Smith' cv@~/Documents/cv.pdf

The request above is the same as if the following HTML form were submitted:

<form enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post" action="http://example.com/jobs">
    <input type="text" name="name" />
    <input type="file" name="cv" />
</form>

Note that @ is used to simulate a file upload form field, whereas =@ just embeds the file content as a regular text field value.

9   HTTP headers

To set custom headers you can use the Header:Value notation:

$ http example.org  User-Agent:Bacon/1.0  'Cookie:valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar'  \
    X-Foo:Bar  Referer:http://httpie.org/
GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar
Host: example.org
Referer: http://httpie.org/
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
X-Foo: Bar

9.1   Default request headers

There are a couple of default headers that HTTPie sets:

GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
User-Agent: HTTPie/<version>
Host: <taken-from-URL>

Any of those—except for Host—can be overwritten and some of them unset.

9.2   Empty headers and header un-setting

To unset a previously specified header (such a one of the default headers), use Header::

$ http httpbin.org/headers Accept: User-Agent:

To send a header with an empty value, use Header;:

$ http httpbin.org/headers 'Header;'

10   Authentication

The currently supported authentication schemes are Basic and Digest (see auth plugins for more). There are two flags that control authentication:

--auth, -a Pass a username:password pair as the argument. Or, if you only specify a username (-a username), you'll be prompted for the password before the request is sent. To send an empty password, pass username:. The username:password@hostname URL syntax is supported as well (but credentials passed via -a have higher priority).
--auth-type, -A Specify the auth mechanism. Possible values are basic and digest. The default value is basic so it can often be omitted.

10.1   Basic auth

$ http -a username:password example.org

10.2   Digest auth

$ http -A digest -a username:password example.org

10.3   Password prompt

$ http -a username example.org

10.4   .netrc

Authorization information from your ~/.netrc file is honored as well:

$ cat ~/.netrc
machine httpbin.org
login httpie
password test

$ http httpbin.org/basic-auth/httpie/test
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
[...]

10.5   Auth plugins

Additional authentication mechanism can be installed as plugins. They can be found on the Python Package Index. Here's a few picks:

11   HTTP redirects

By default, HTTP redirects are not followed and only the first response is shown:

$ http httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.1   Follow Location

To instruct HTTPie to follow the Location header of 30x responses and show the final response instead, use the --follow, -F option:

$ http --follow httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.2   Showing intermediary redirect responses

If you additionally wish to see the intermediary requests/responses, then use the --all option as well:

$ http --follow --all httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.3   Limiting maximum redirects followed

To change the default limit of maximum 30 redirects, use the --max-redirects=<limit> option:

$ http --follow --all --max-redirects=5 httpbin.org/redirect/3

12   Proxies

You can specify proxies to be used through the --proxy argument for each protocol (which is included in the value in case of redirects across protocols):

$ http --proxy=http:http://10.10.1.10:3128 --proxy=https:https://10.10.1.10:1080 example.org

With Basic authentication:

$ http --proxy=http:http://user:pass@10.10.1.10:3128 example.org

12.1   Environment variables

You can also configure proxies by environment variables HTTP_PROXY and HTTPS_PROXY, and the underlying Requests library will pick them up as well. If you want to disable proxies configured through the environment variables for certain hosts, you can specify them in NO_PROXY.

In your ~/.bash_profile:

export HTTP_PROXY=http://10.10.1.10:3128
export HTTPS_PROXY=https://10.10.1.10:1080
export NO_PROXY=localhost,example.com

12.2   SOCKS

Homebrew-installed HTTPie comes with SOCKS proxy support out of the box. To enable SOCKS proxy support for non-Homebrew installations, you'll need to install requests[socks] manually using pip:

$ pip install -U requests[socks]

Usage is the same as for other types of proxies:

$ http --proxy=http:socks5://user:pass@host:port --proxy=https:socks5://user:pass@host:port example.org

13   HTTPS

13.1   Server SSL certificate verification

To skip the host's SSL certificate verification, you can pass --verify=no (default is yes):

$ http --verify=no https://example.org

13.2   Custom CA bundle

You can also use --verify=<CA_BUNDLE_PATH> to set a custom CA bundle path:

$ http --verify=/ssl/custom_ca_bundle https://example.org

13.3   Client side SSL certificate

To use a client side certificate for the SSL communication, you can pass the path of the cert file with --cert:

$ http --cert=client.pem https://example.org

If the private key is not contained in the cert file you may pass the path of the key file with --cert-key:

$ http --cert=client.crt --cert-key=client.key https://example.org

13.4   SSL version

Use the --ssl=<PROTOCOL> to specify the desired protocol version to use. This will default to SSL v2.3 which will negotiate the highest protocol that both the server and your installation of OpenSSL support. The available protocols are ssl2.3, ssl3, tls1, tls1.1, tls1.2. (The actually available set of protocols may vary depending on your OpenSSL installation.)

# Specify the vulnerable SSL v3 protocol to talk to an outdated server:
$ http --ssl=ssl3 https://vulnerable.example.org

13.5   SNI (Server Name Indication)

If you use HTTPie with Python version lower than 2.7.9 (can be verified with http --debug) and need to talk to servers that use SNI (Server Name Indication) you need to install some additional dependencies:

$ pip install --upgrade requests[security]

You can use the following command to test SNI support:

$ http https://sni.velox.ch

14   Output options

By default, HTTPie only outputs the final response and the whole response message is printed (headers as well as the body). You can control what should be printed via several options:

--headers, -h Only the response headers are printed.
--body, -b Only the response body is printed.
--verbose, -v Print the whole HTTP exchange (request and response). This option also enables --all (see bellow).
--print, -p Selects parts of the HTTP exchange.

--verbose can often be useful for debugging the request and generating documentation examples:

$ http --verbose PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world
PUT /put HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, */*
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: httpbin.org
User-Agent: HTTPie/0.2.7dev

{
    "hello": "world"
}


HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 477
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Sun, 05 Aug 2012 00:25:23 GMT
Server: gunicorn/0.13.4

{
    […]
}

14.1   What parts of the HTTP exchange should be printed

All the other output options are under the hood just shortcuts for the more powerful --print, -p. It accepts a string of characters each of which represents a specific part of the HTTP exchange:

Character Stands for
H request headers
B request body
h response headers
b response body

Print request and response headers:

$ http --print=Hh PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world

14.2   Viewing intermediary requests/responses

To see all the HTTP communication, i.e. the final request/response as well as any possible intermediary requests/responses, use the --all option. The intermediary HTTP communication include followed redirects (with --follow), the first unauthorized request when HTTP digest authentication is used (--auth=digest), etc.

# Include all responses that lead to the final one:
$ http --all --follow httpbin.org/redirect/3

The intermediary requests/response are by default formatted according to --print, -p (and its shortcuts described above). If you'd like to change that, use the --history-print, -P option. It takes the same arguments as --print, -p but applies to the intermediary requests only.

# Print the intermediary requests/responses differently than the final one:
$ http -A digest -a foo:bar --all -p Hh -P H httpbin.org/digest-auth/auth/foo/bar

14.3   Conditional body download

As an optimization, the response body is downloaded from the server only if it's part of the output. This is similar to performing a HEAD request, except that it applies to any HTTP method you use.

Let's say that there is an API that returns the whole resource when it is updated, but you are only interested in the response headers to see the status code after an update:

$ http --headers PATCH example.org/Really-Huge-Resource name='New Name'

Since we are only printing the HTTP headers here, the connection to the server is closed as soon as all the response headers have been received. Therefore, bandwidth and time isn't wasted downloading the body which you don't care about. The response headers are downloaded always, even if they are not part of the output

15   Redirected Input

The universal method for passing request data is through redirected stdin (standard input)—piping. Such data is buffered and then with no further processing used as the request body. There are multiple useful ways to use piping:

Redirect from a file:

$ http PUT example.com/person/1 X-API-Token:123 < person.json

Or the output of another program:

$ grep '401 Unauthorized' /var/log/httpd/error_log | http POST example.org/intruders

You can use echo for simple data:

$ echo '{"name": "John"}' | http PATCH example.com/person/1 X-API-Token:123

You can even pipe web services together using HTTPie:

$ http GET https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie | http POST httpbin.org/post

You can use cat to enter multiline data on the terminal:

$ cat | http POST example.com
<paste>
^D
$ cat | http POST example.com/todos Content-Type:text/plain
- buy milk
- call parents
^D

On OS X, you can send the contents of the clipboard with pbpaste:

$ pbpaste | http PUT example.com

Passing data through stdin cannot be combined with data fields specified on the command line:

$ echo 'data' | http POST example.org more=data   # This is invalid

To prevent HTTPie from reading stdin data you can use the --ignore-stdin option.

15.1   Request data from a filename

An alternative to redirected stdin is specifying a filename (as @/path/to/file) whose content is used as if it came from stdin.

It has the advantage that the Content-Type header is automatically set to the appropriate value based on the filename extension. For example, the following request sends the verbatim contents of that XML file with Content-Type: application/xml:

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put @/data/file.xml

16   Terminal output

HTTPie does several things by default in order to make its terminal output easy to read.

16.1   Colors and formatting

Syntax highlighting is applied to HTTP headers and bodies (where it makes sense). You can choose your preferred color scheme via the --style option if you don't like the default one (see $ http --help for the possible values).

Also, the following formatting is applied:

  • HTTP headers are sorted by name.
  • JSON data is indented, sorted by keys, and unicode escapes are converted to the characters they represent.

One of these options can be used to control output processing:

--pretty=all Apply both colors and formatting. Default for terminal output.
--pretty=colors Apply colors.
--pretty=format Apply formatting.
--pretty=none Disables output processing. Default for redirected output.

16.2   Binary data

Binary data is suppressed for terminal output, which makes it safe to perform requests to URLs that send back binary data. Binary data is suppressed also in redirected, but prettified output. The connection is closed as soon as we know that the response body is binary,

$ http example.org/Movie.mov

You will nearly instantly see something like this:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Encoding: gzip
Content-Type: video/quicktime
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

+-----------------------------------------+
| NOTE: binary data not shown in terminal |
+-----------------------------------------+

17   Redirected output

HTTPie uses a different set of defaults for redirected output than for terminal output. The differences being:

  • Formatting and colors aren't applied (unless --pretty is specified).
  • Only the response body is printed (unless one of the output options is set).
  • Also, binary data isn't suppressed.

The reason is to make piping HTTPie's output to another programs and downloading files work with no extra flags. Most of the time, only the raw response body is of an interest when the output is redirected.

Download a file:

$ http example.org/Movie.mov > Movie.mov

Download an image of Octocat, resize it using ImageMagick, upload it elsewhere:

$ http octodex.github.com/images/original.jpg | convert - -resize 25% -  | http example.org/Octocats

Force colorizing and formatting, and show both the request and the response in less pager:

$ http --pretty=all --verbose example.org | less -R

The -R flag tells less to interpret color escape sequences included HTTPie`s output.

You can create a shortcut for invoking HTTPie with colorized and paged output by adding the following to your ~/.bash_profile:

function httpless {
    # `httpless example.org'
    http --pretty=all --print=hb "$@" | less -R;
}

18   Download mode

HTTPie features a download mode in which it acts similarly to wget.

When enabled using the --download, -d flag, response headers are printed to the terminal (stderr), and a progress bar is shown while the response body is being saved to a file.

$ http --download https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=httpie-master.tar.gz
Content-Length: 257336
Content-Type: application/x-gzip

Downloading 251.30 kB to "httpie-master.tar.gz"
Done. 251.30 kB in 2.73862s (91.76 kB/s)

18.1   Downloaded file name

If not provided via --output, -o, the output filename will be determined from Content-Disposition (if available), or from the URL and Content-Type. If the guessed filename already exists, HTTPie adds a unique suffix to it.

18.2   Piping while downloading

You can also redirect the response body to another program while the response headers and progress are still shown in the terminal:

$ http -d https://github.com/jakubroztocil/httpie/archive/master.tar.gz |  tar zxf -

18.3   Resuming downloads

If --output, -o is specified, you can resume a partial download using the --continue, -c option. This only works with servers that support Range requests and 206 Partial Content responses. If the server doesn't support that, the whole file will simply be downloaded:

$ http -dco file.zip example.org/file

18.4   Other notes

  • The --download option only changes how the response body is treated.
  • You can still set custom headers, use sessions, --verbose, -v, etc.
  • --download always implies --follow (redirects are followed).
  • HTTPie exits with status code 1 (error) if the body hasn't been fully downloaded.
  • Accept-Encoding cannot be set with --download.

19   Streamed responses

Responses are downloaded and printed in chunks which allows for streaming and large file downloads without using too much memory. However, when colors and formatting is applied, the whole response is buffered and only then processed at once.

19.1   Disabling buffering

You can use the --stream, -S flag to make two things happen:

  1. The output is flushed in much smaller chunks without any buffering, which makes HTTPie behave kind of like tail -f for URLs.
  2. Streaming becomes enabled even when the output is prettified: It will be applied to each line of the response and flushed immediately. This makes it possible to have a nice output for long-lived requests, such as one to the Twitter streaming API.

19.2   Examples use cases

Prettified streamed response:

$ http --stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track='Justin Bieber'

Streamed output by small chunks alá tail -f:

# Send each new tweet (JSON object) mentioning "Apple" to another
# server as soon as it arrives from the Twitter streaming API:
$ http --stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track=Apple \
| while read tweet; do echo "$tweet" | http POST example.org/tweets ; done

20   Sessions

By default, every request HTTPie makes is completely independent of any previous ones to the same host.

However, HTTPie also supports persistent sessions via the --session=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH option. In a session, custom headers—except for the ones starting with Content- or If-—, authorization, and cookies (manually specified or sent by the server) persist between requests to the same host.

# Create a new session
$ http --session=/tmp/session.json example.org API-Token:123

# Re-use an existing session — API-Token will be set:
$ http --session=/tmp/session.json example.org

All session data, including credentials, cookie data, and custom headers are stored in plain text. That means session files can also be created and edited manually in a text editor—they are regular JSON.

20.1   Named sessions

You can create one or more named session per host. For example, this is how you can create a new session named user1 for example.org:

$ http --session=user1 -a user1:password example.org X-Foo:Bar

From now on, you can refer to the session by its name. When you choose to use the session again, any the previously used authorization and HTTP headers will automatically be set:

$ http --session=user1 example.org

To create or reuse a different session, simple specify a different name:

$ http --session=user2 -a user2:password example.org X-Bar:Foo

Named sessions' data is stored in JSON files in the directory ~/.httpie/sessions/<host>/<name>.json (%APPDATA%\httpie\sessions\<host>\<name>.json on Windows).

20.2   Anonymous sessions

Instead of a name, you can also directly specify a path to a session file. This allows for sessions to be re-used across multiple hosts:

$ http --session=/tmp/session.json example.org
$ http --session=/tmp/session.json admin.example.org
$ http --session=~/.httpie/sessions/another.example.org/test.json example.org
$ http --session-read-only=/tmp/session.json example.org

20.3   Readonly session

To use an existing session file without updating it from the request/response exchange once it is created, specify the session name via --session-read-only=SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH instead.

21   Config

HTTPie uses a simple JSON config file.

21.1   Config file location

The default location of the configuration file is ~/.httpie/config.json (or %APPDATA%\httpie\config.json on Windows). The config directory location can be changed by setting the HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR environment variable. To view the exact location run http --debug.

21.2   Configurable options

The JSON file contains an object with the following keys:

21.2.1   default_options

An Array (by default empty) of default options that should be applied to every invocation of HTTPie.

For instance, you can use this option to change the default style and output options: "default_options": ["--style=fruity", "--body"] Another useful default option could be "--session=default" to make HTTPie always use sessions (one named default will automatically be used). Or you could change the implicit request content type from JSON to form by adding --form to the list.

21.2.2   __meta__

HTTPie automatically stores some of its metadata here. Please do not change.

21.3   Un-setting previously specified options

Default options from the config file, or specified any other way, can be unset for a particular invocation via --no-OPTION arguments passed on the command line (e.g., --no-style or --no-session).

22   Scripting

When using HTTPie from shell scripts, it can be handy to set the --check-status flag. It instructs HTTPie to exit with an error if the HTTP status is one of 3xx, 4xx, or 5xx. The exit status will be 3 (unless --follow is set), 4, or 5, respectively.

#!/bin/bash

if http --check-status --ignore-stdin --timeout=2.5 HEAD example.org/health &> /dev/null; then
    echo 'OK!'
else
    case $? in
        2) echo 'Request timed out!' ;;
        3) echo 'Unexpected HTTP 3xx Redirection!' ;;
        4) echo 'HTTP 4xx Client Error!' ;;
        5) echo 'HTTP 5xx Server Error!' ;;
        6) echo 'Exceeded --max-redirects=<n> redirects!' ;;
        *) echo 'Other Error!' ;;
    esac
fi

22.1   Best practices

The default behaviour of automatically reading stdin is typically not desirable during non-interactive invocations. You most likely want use the --ignore-stdin option to disable it.

It is a common gotcha that without this option HTTPie seemingly hangs. What happens is that when HTTPie is invoked for example from a cron job, stdin is not connected to a terminal. Therefore, rules for redirected input apply, i.e., HTTPie starts to read it expecting that the request body will be passed through. And since there's no data nor EOF, it will be stuck. So unless you're piping some data to HTTPie, this flag should be used in scripts.

Also, it's might be good to override the default 30 second --timeout to something that suits you.

23   Meta

23.1   Interface design

The syntax of the command arguments closely corresponds to the actual HTTP requests sent over the wire. It has the advantage that it's easy to remember and read. It is often possible to translate an HTTP request to an HTTPie argument list just by inlining the request elements. For example, compare this HTTP request:

POST /collection HTTP/1.1
X-API-Key: 123
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=value&name2=value2

with the HTTPie command that sends it:

$ http -f POST example.org/collection \
  X-API-Key:123 \
  User-Agent:Bacon/1.0 \
  name=value \
  name2=value2

Notice that both the order of elements and the syntax is very similar, and that only a small portion of the command is used to control HTTPie and doesn't directly correspond to any part of the request (here it's only -f asking HTTPie to send a form request).

The two modes, --pretty=all (default for terminal) and --pretty=none (default for redirected output), allow for both user-friendly interactive use and usage from scripts, where HTTPie serves as a generic HTTP client.

As HTTPie is still under heavy development, the existing command line syntax and some of the --OPTIONS may change slightly before HTTPie reaches its final version 1.0. All changes are recorded in the change log.

23.2   User support

Please use the following support channels:

23.3   Related projects

23.3.1   Dependencies

Under the hood, HTTPie uses these two amazing libraries:

  • Requests — Python HTTP library for humans
  • Pygments — Python syntax highlighter

23.3.2   HTTPie friends

HTTPie plays exceptionally well with the following tools:

  • jq — CLI JSON processor that works great in conjunction with HTTPie
  • http-prompt — interactive shell for HTTPie featuring autocomplete and command syntax highlighting

23.3.3   Alternatives

  • httpcat — a lower-level sister utility of HTTPie for constructing raw HTTP requests on the command line.
  • curl — a "Swiss knife" command line tool and an exceptional library for transferring data with URLs.

23.4   Contributing

See CONTRIBUTING.rst.

23.5   Change log

See CHANGELOG.

23.6   Artwork

See claudiatd/httpie-artwork

23.7   Licence

BSD-3-Clause: LICENSE.

23.8   Authors

Jakub Roztocil (@jakubroztocil) created HTTPie and these fine people have contributed.



HTTPie: a CLI, cURL-like tool for humans

HTTPie(发音为 aitch-tee-tee-pie )是一个命令行HTTP客户端。 其目标是使CLI与Web服务的交互变得人性化 尽可能。它提供了一个简单的 http 命令,允许发送 任意HTTP请求使用简单自然的语法,并显示 彩色输出。 HTTPie可用于测试,调试和 一般与HTTP服务器交互。

HTTPie与cURL相比src

最新版本发布PyPI上 在Mac 构建状态在Windows 测试覆盖率 聊天上的Gitter

Contents

1主要功能

  • 表达和直观的语法
  • 格式化和着色终端输出
  • 内置JSON支援
  • 表单和文件上传
  • HTTPS,代理和身份验证
  • 任意请求数据
  • 自定义标头
  • 持续会议
  • Wget类下载
  • Python 2.6,2.7和3.x支持
  • Linux,Mac OS X和Windows支持
  • 插件
  • 文档
  • 测试覆盖率

2安装

2.1 macOS

在macOS上,可以通过 Homebrew 安装HTTPie (推荐):

$ brew install httpie

MacPorts 端口也可用:

$ port install httpie

2.2 Linux

大多数Linux发行版都提供了一个可以使用的软件包 系统包管理器,例如:

# Debian, Ubuntu, etc.
$ apt-get install httpie
# Fedora, CentOS, RHEL, …
$ yum install httpie
# Arch Linux
$ pacman -S httpie

2.3 Windows等

通用安装方法(适用于Windows,Mac OS X,Linux,…, 并始终提供最新版本)是使用 pip

# Make sure we have an up-to-date version of pip and setuptools:
$ pip install –upgrade pip setuptools

$ pip install –upgrade httpie

(如果 pip 由于某些原因安装失败,可以尝试一下 easy_install httpie 作为后备。)

2.4 Python版本

虽然Python 2.6和2.7也受支持,但建议安装 尽可能使用最新的Python 3.x的HTTPie。这将确保 一些较新的HTTP功能,例如 SNI(服务器名称指示), 开箱即用 从版本0.9.4开始,Homebrew安装的默认值为3。 要查看HTTPie使用的版本,请运行 http –debug

2.5不稳定版本

您也可以代替最新的未发布的开发版本 直接从GitHub上的 master 分支。 这是一个未来稳定发布的工作,所以经验 可能不那么顺利。

在Mac Windows上主分支的构建状态src

在MacOS上,您可以使用Homebrew来安装它:

$ brew install httpie –HEAD

否则使用 pip

验证现在我们有了 当前开发版本标识符 使用 -dev 后缀,例如:

$ http –version
1.0.0-dev

3使用

Hello World:

$ http httpie.org

剧情介绍:

$ http [flags] [METHOD] URL [ITEM [ITEM]]

另请参阅 http –help

3.1示例

自定义 HTTP方法 HTTP标头 JSON data:

$ http PUT example.org X-API-Token:123 name=John

提交表单

$ http -f POST example.org hello=World

查看使用输出选项之一发送的请求:

$ http -v example.org

使用 Github API 问题 身份验证

$ http -a USERNAME POST https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie/issues/83/comments body='HTTPie is awesome! :heart:'

使用重定向输入上传文件:

$ http example.org < file.json

下载文件并通过重定向输出保存:

$ http example.org/file > file

下载文件 wget style:

$ http –download example.org/file

使用命名的会话使某些方面或通信持续存在 在同一主机的请求之间:

$ http –session=logged-in -a username:password httpbin.org/get API-Key:123

$ http –session=logged-in httpbin.org/headers

设置自定义的主机头以解决缺少的DNS记录:

$ http localhost:8000 Host:example.com

4 HTTP方法

HTTP方法的名称位于URL参数之前:

$ http DELETE example.org/todos/7

其类似于发送的实际 Request-Line

DELETE /todos/7 HTTP/1.1

当命令中省略 METHOD 参数时,HTTPie默认为 GET (没有请求数据)或 POST (带请求数据)。

5请求URL

HTTPie需要执行请求的唯一信息是一个URL。 默认方案有点不出意料,就是 http:// 并且可以从参数中省略 - http example.org 工作正常。

5.1 Querystring参数

如果您发现自己手动构造具有querystring参数的URL 在终端上,您可以欣赏附加的 param == value 语法 网址参数。因此,您不必担心转义&amp; 你的shell的分隔符另外,参数值中的特殊字符, 也会自动转义(HTTPie否则期望URL为 已经逃脱)。要在Google图片上搜索您可以使用的 HTTPie标志 这个命令:

$ http www.google.com search=='HTTPie logo' tbm==isch
GET /?search=HTTPie+logo&tbm=isch HTTP/1.1

5.2 localhost 的URL快捷方式

另外,支持localhost的卷曲式简写。 这意味着,例如:3000 将扩展为 http:// localhost:3000 如果端口被省略,则假定端口80。

$ http :/foo
GET /foo HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost
$ http :3000/bar
GET /bar HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:3000
$ http :
GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost

5.3自定义默认方案

您可以使用 - default-scheme&lt; URL_SCHEME&gt; 选项来创建 HTTP之外的其他协议的快捷方式:

$ alias https='http –default-scheme=https'

6请求项目

提供了一些不同的请求项类型 用于指定HTTP标头的简单机制,简单的JSON和 表单数据,文件和URL参数。

它们是在URL之后指定的键/值对。全部都在 常见的是,它们成为发送的实际请求的一部分 它们的类型仅由所使用的分隔符区分开: = := == @ = @ 和:= @ 。有一个 @ 希望文件路径为值。

Item Type Description
HTTP Headers Name:Value Arbitrary HTTP header, e.g. X-API-Token:123.
URL parameters name==value Appends the given name/value pair as a query string parameter to the URL. The == separator is used.
Data Fields field=value, field=@file.txt Request data fields to be serialized as a JSON object (default), or to be form-encoded (–form, -f).
Raw JSON fields field:=json, field:=@file.json Useful when sending JSON and one or more fields need to be a Boolean, Number, nested Object, or an Array, e.g., meals:='["ham","spam"]' or pies:=[1,2,3] (note the quotes).
Form File Fields field@/dir/file Only available with –form, -f. For example screenshot@~/Pictures/img.png. The presence of a file field results in a multipart/form-data request.

请注意,数据字段不是指定请求数据的唯一方法: 重定向输入是传递任意数据请求的机制 请求。

6.1转义规则

You can use </code> to escape characters that shouldn't be used as separators (or parts thereof). For instance, foo\==bar will become a data key/value pair (foo= and bar) instead of a URL parameter.

通常有必要引用这些值,例如 foo =‘bar baz’

如果任何字段名称或标题以负号开头 (例如, -fieldname ),您需要将所有这些项目放在特殊的后面 令牌 - 以防止与 - 参数混淆:

$ http httpbin.org/post  –  -name-starting-with-dash=foo -Unusual-Header:bar
POST /post HTTP/1.1
-Unusual-Header: bar
Content-Type: application/json

{ "-name-starting-with-dash": "value" }

7 JSON

JSON是现代网络服务的通用语言,它也是 隐式内容类型默认使用HTTPie

简单示例:

$ http PUT example.org name=John email=john@example.org
PUT / HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, /
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: example.org

{ "name": "John", "email": "john@example.org" }

7.1默认行为

如果您的命令包含一些请求项目的数据,则将其序列化为JSON 对象默认。 HTTPie还自动设置以下标题, 这两个可以被覆盖:

Content-Type application/json
Accept application/json, /

7.2显式JSON

您可以使用 - json,-j 来明确设置 Accept 无论您是发送数据,还是使用 application / json (这是通过通常的标题表示法设置标题的快捷方式: http url接受:’application / json,* / *’)。另外, HTTPie将尝试检测JSON响应,即使在 Content-Type 不正确 text / plain 或未知。

7.3非字符串JSON字段

非字符串字段使用:= 分隔符,它允许您嵌入原始的JSON 进入结果对象。文本和原始JSON文件也可以嵌入 使用 = @ := @

的字段
$ http PUT api.example.com/person/1 
name=John
age:=29 married:=false hobbies:='["http", "pies"]' \ # Raw JSON description=@about-john.txt \ # Embed text file bookmarks:=@bookmarks.json # Embed JSON file
PUT /person/1 HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, /
Content-Type: application/json
Host: api.example.com

{ "age": 29, "hobbies": [ "http", "pies" ], "description": "John is a nice guy who likes pies.", "married": false, "name": "John", "bookmarks": { "HTTPie": "http://httpie.org", } }

请注意,使用此语法,发送时命令变得笨拙 复杂数据。在这种情况下,最好使用重定向输入

$ http POST api.example.com/person/1 < person.json
8个表格

提交表单与发送 JSON 请求非常相似。通常是唯一的 区别在于添加 - form,-f 选项,这样可以确保 数据字段被序列化为,并且 Content-Type 设置为 application / x-www-form-urlencoded; charset = utf-8 。这是可能的 形成数据的隐含内容类型而不是JSON 通过配置文件。

8.1正式表格

$ http –form POST api.example.org/person/1 name='John Smith'
POST /person/1 HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8

name=John+Smith

8.2文件上传表单

如果存在一个或多个文件字段,则序列化和内容类型为 multipart / form-data

$ http -f POST example.com/jobs name='John Smith' cv@~/Documents/cv.pdf

以上请求与以下HTML表单相同 提交:

<form enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post" action="http://example.com/jobs">
    <input type="text" name="name" />
    <input type="file" name="cv" />
</form>

请注意, @ 用于模拟文件上传表单字段,而 = @ 只需将文件内容作为常规文本字段值嵌入。

9个HTTP标头

要设置自定义标题,您可以使用标题:值符号:

$ http example.org  User-Agent:Bacon/1.0  'Cookie:valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar'  
X-Foo:Bar Referer:http://httpie.org/
GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: /
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Cookie: valued-visitor=yes;foo=bar
Host: example.org
Referer: http://httpie.org/
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
X-Foo: Bar

9.1默认请求标头

HTTPie设置了几个默认标头:

GET / HTTP/1.1
Accept: /
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
User-Agent: HTTPie/<version>
Host: <taken-from-URL>

Host 之外的任何一个可以被覆盖,其中一些未设置。

9.2清空标题和标题取消设置

取消设置以前指定的标题 (这样一个默认标题),使用标题:

$ http httpbin.org/headers Accept: User-Agent:

要发送带有空值的标题,请使用标题;

$ http httpbin.org/headers 'Header;'

10认证

当前支持的认证方案是基本和摘要 (有关更多信息,请参阅验证插件)。有两个控制身份验证的标志:

–auth, -a Pass a username:password pair as the argument. Or, if you only specify a username (-a username), you'll be prompted for the password before the request is sent. To send an empty password, pass username:. The username:password@hostname URL syntax is supported as well (but credentials passed via -a have higher priority).
–auth-type, -A Specify the auth mechanism. Possible values are basic and digest. The default value is basic so it can often be omitted.

10.1基本认证

$ http -a username:password example.org

10.2 Digest auth

$ http -A digest -a username:password example.org

10.3密码提示

$ http -a username example.org

10.4 <代码> .netrc

您的〜/ .netrc 文件中的授权信息也是如此:

$ cat ~/.netrc
machine httpbin.org
login httpie
password test

$ http httpbin.org/basic-auth/httpie/test HTTP/1.1 200 OK […]

10.5验证插件

附加认证机制可以作为插件安装。 可以在 Python软件包索引中找到它们。 以下是几个选择:

11 HTTP重定向

默认情况下,HTTP重定向不遵循,只有第一个 响应显示:

$ http httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.1按照位置

要指示HTTPie遵循 30x 响应的位置标题 并显示最终的响应,使用 - 跟随,-F 选项:

$ http –follow httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.2显示中介重定向响应

如果您还希望看到中介请求/回复, 然后使用 - all 选项:

$ http –follow –all httpbin.org/redirect/3

11.3限制最大重定向遵循

要更改最大 30 重定向的默认限制,请使用 - max-redirects =&lt; limit&gt; 选项:

$ http –follow –all –max-redirects=5 httpbin.org/redirect/3

12代理

您可以通过每个代码的 - proxy 参数指定要使用的代理 协议(在通过协议重定向的情况下包含在值中):

$ http –proxy=http:http://10.10.1.10:3128 –proxy=https:https://10.10.1.10:1080 example.org

使用基本身份验证:

$ http –proxy=http:http://user:pass@10.10.1.10:3128 example.org

12.1环境变量

您还可以通过环境变量 HTTP_PROXY 配置代理 HTTPS_PROXY ,底层的请求库也会接收它们。 如果要禁用通过环境变量配置的代理 某些主机,您可以在 NO_PROXY 中指定它们

在您的〜/ .bash_profile 中:

export HTTP_PROXY=http://10.10.1.10:3128
export HTTPS_PROXY=https://10.10.1.10:1080
export NO_PROXY=localhost,example.com

12.2 SOCKS

Homebrew安装的HTTPie自带的SOCKS代理支持开箱即用。要为非自制软件安装启用SOCKS代理支持,您需要使用 pip 手动安装请求[socks]

$ pip install -U requests[socks]

与其他类型的代理的用法相同:

$ http –proxy=http:socks5://user:pass@host:port –proxy=https:socks5://user:pass@host:port example.org

13 HTTPS

13.1服务器SSL证书验证

要跳过主机的SSL证书验证,您可以传递 - verify = no (默认为 yes ):

$ http –verify=no https://example.org

13.2自定义CA捆绑

您还可以使用 - verify =&lt; CA_BUNDLE_PATH&gt; 设置自定义CA包路径:

$ http –verify=/ssl/custom_ca_bundle https://example.org

13.3客户端SSL证书

要使用客户端证书进行SSL通信,可以通过 证书文件的路径为 - cert

$ http –cert=client.pem https://example.org

如果私钥不包含在证书文件中,您可以通过 密钥文件的路径为 - cert-key

$ http –cert=client.crt –cert-key=client.key https://example.org

13.4 SSL版本

使用 - ssl =&lt; PROTOCOL&gt; 指定所需的协议版本。 这将默认为SSL v2.3,它将协商两者的最高协议 服务器和OpenSSL的安装支持。可用的协议 是 ssl2.3 ssl3 tls1 tls1.1 tls1.2 。 (其实 可用的协议集可能会因您的OpenSSL安装而异。)

# Specify the vulnerable SSL v3 protocol to talk to an outdated server:
$ http –ssl=ssl3 https://vulnerable.example.org

13.5 SNI(服务器名称指示)

如果您使用的HTTPie与 Python版本低于2.7.9 (可以使用 http –debug 进行验证),并且需要与服务器通信 使用SNI(服务器名称指示),您需要安装一些额外的 依赖关系:

$ pip install –upgrade requests[security]

您可以使用以下命令来测试SNI支持:

14输出选项

默认情况下,HTTPie只输出最终响应和整个响应 打印消息(标题以及正文)。你可以控制什么应该 通过几个选项打印:

–headers, -h Only the response headers are printed.
–body, -b Only the response body is printed.
–verbose, -v Print the whole HTTP exchange (request and response). This option also enables –all (see bellow).
–print, -p Selects parts of the HTTP exchange.

- verbose 通常可用于调试请求和生成 文档示例:

$ http –verbose PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world
PUT /put HTTP/1.1
Accept: application/json, /
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Content-Type: application/json
Host: httpbin.org
User-Agent: HTTPie/0.2.7dev

{ "hello": "world" }

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection: keep-alive Content-Length: 477 Content-Type: application/json Date: Sun, 05 Aug 2012 00:25:23 GMT Server: gunicorn/0.13.4

{ […] }

14.1应该打印HTTP交换的哪些部分

所有其他输出选项都是引擎盖下的快捷方式 更强大的 - print,-p 。它接受一串字符 其中代表了HTTP交换的一个特定部分:

Character Stands for
H request headers
B request body
h response headers
b response body

打印请求和响应标头:

$ http –print=Hh PUT httpbin.org/put hello=world

14.2查看中间请求/回复

查看所有HTTP通信,即最终的请求/响应 以及任何可能的中间请求/响应,请使用 - all 选项。中间HTTP通信包括跟随的重定向 (with - follow ),HTTP摘要时的第一个未经授权的请求 使用身份验证( - auth = digest )等。

# Include all responses that lead to the final one:
$ http –all –follow httpbin.org/redirect/3

中间请求/响应默认格式为 - print,-p (及其上面描述的快捷方式)。如果你想改变 使用 - history-print,-P 选项。它需要相同的 参数为 - print,-p ,但仅适用于中介请求。

# Print the intermediary requests/responses differently than the final one:
$ http -A digest -a foo:bar –all -p Hh -P H httpbin.org/digest-auth/auth/foo/bar

14.3条件体下载

作为优化,响应正文从服务器下载 只有它是输出的一部分。这类似于执行 HEAD 请求,除了它适用于您使用的任何HTTP方法。

假设有一个API可以返回整个资源 更新,但您只对响应头感兴趣才能看到 更新后的状态码:

$ http –headers PATCH example.org/Really-Huge-Resource name='New Name'

由于我们只是在这里打印HTTP头,连接到服务器 一旦接收到所有响应标头,就关闭。 因此,下载身体不会浪费带宽和时间 你不在乎的。响应标头总是下载, 即使它们不是输出的一部分

15重定向输入

传递请求数据的通用方法是通过重定向的 stdin (标准输入) - 这样的数据被缓冲,然后不再进一步 处理用作请求体。有多种有用的方法可以使用 管道:

从档案重定向:

$ http PUT example.com/person/1 X-API-Token:123 < person.json

或另一个程序的输出:

$ grep '401 Unauthorized' /var/log/httpd/error_log | http POST example.org/intruders

您可以使用 echo 获取简单数据:

$ echo '{"name": "John"}' | http PATCH example.com/person/1 X-API-Token:123

您甚至可以使用HTTPie一起管理Web服务:

$ http GET https://api.github.com/repos/jakubroztocil/httpie | http POST httpbin.org/post

您可以使用 cat 在终端上输入多行数据:

$ cat | http POST example.com
<paste>
^D
$ cat | http POST example.com/todos Content-Type:text/plain
- buy milk
- call parents
^D

在OS X上,您可以使用 pbpaste 发送剪贴板的内容:

$ pbpaste | http PUT example.com

通过 stdin 传递数据不能与指定的数据字段组合 在命令行:

$ echo 'data' | http POST example.org more=data   # This is invalid

为了防止HTTPie读取 stdin 数据,您可以使用 - ignore-stdin 选项。

15.1从文件名中请求数据

重定向 stdin 的替代方法是指定一个文件名(as @ / path / to / file )的内容被使用,就好像它来自 stdin

具有 Content-Type 的优点 标题根据自动设置为适当的值 文件名扩展名例如,以下请求发送 具有 Content-Type:application / xml 的XML文件的逐字内容:

$ http PUT httpbin.org/put @/data/file.xml

16终端输出

为了使其终端输出,默认情况下,HTTPie会执行几项操作 容易阅读。

16.1颜色和格式

语法突出显示应用于HTTP标头和正文(它所在的位置) 感)。您可以通过 - style 选项选择您喜欢的配色方案 如果你不喜欢默认的(参见 $ http –help 可能的 值)。

另外,应用以下格式:

  • HTTP头按名称排序。
  • JSON数据缩进,按键排序,并转换unicode转义 他们所代表的角色。

其中一个选项可用于控制输出处理:

–pretty=all Apply both colors and formatting. Default for terminal output.
–pretty=colors Apply colors.
–pretty=format Apply formatting.
–pretty=none Disables output processing. Default for redirected output.

16.2二进制数据

二进制数据被抑制用于终端输出,这使其安全执行 请求发送二进制数据的URL。二进制数据也被抑制 重定向,但精美的输出。一旦我们知道,连接就关闭 响应体是二进制的,

$ http example.org/Movie.mov
你几乎可以立即看到这样的东西:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Encoding: gzip
Content-Type: video/quicktime
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

+—————————————–+ | NOTE: binary data not shown in terminal | +—————————————–+

17重定向输出

HTTPie对重定向输出使用不同的默认设置 终端输出。区别在于:

  • 不应用格式化和颜色(除非指定了 - pretty )。
  • 仅打印响应正文(除非设置了输出选项之一)。
  • 此外,二进制数据不被抑制。

原因是将HTTPie的输出连接到另一个程序 下载文件的工作没有额外的标志。大多数时候,只有原料 当输出被重定向时,响应体感兴趣。

下载文件:

$ http example.org/Movie.mov > Movie.mov

下载Octocat的图像,使用ImageMagick调整大小,将其上传到其他位置:

$ http octodex.github.com/images/original.jpg | convert - -resize 25% -  | http example.org/Octocats
强制着色和格式化,同时显示请求和响应 less pager:

$ http –pretty=all –verbose example.org | less -R

-R 标志指示 less 来解释包含的颜色转义序列 HTTPie的输出。

您可以创建一个使用彩色和分页输出调用HTTPie的快捷方式 通过将以下内容添加到〜/ .bash_profile 中:

function httpless {
    # `httpless example.org'
    http –pretty=all –print=hb "$@" | less -R;
}

18下载模式

HTTPie具有下载模式,其作用类似于 wget

当使用 - 下载-d 标志启用响应标头时,将打印 终端( stderr )和进度条显示在响应体 正在保存到一个文件。

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=httpie-master.tar.gz
Content-Length: 257336
Content-Type: application/x-gzip

Downloading 251.30 kB to "httpie-master.tar.gz" Done. 251.30 kB in 2.73862s (91.76 kB/s)

18.1下载的文件名

如果没有通过输出,-o 提供输出文件名 从 Content-Disposition (如果可用),或从URL和 Content-Type 。如果猜到的文件名已经存在,则HTTPie添加一个唯一的 后缀。

18.2下载时的管道

您也可以在响应时将响应正文重定向到另一个程序 标头和进度仍显示在终端中:

18.3恢复下载

如果指定了 - 输出-o ,则可以使用 - 继续,-c 选项。这只适用于支持的服务器 范围请求和 206部分内容响应。如果服务器没有 支持,整个文件将被简单地下载:

$ http -dco file.zip example.org/file

18.4其他注释

  • - 下载选项只会更改响应正文的处理方式。
  • 您仍然可以设置自定义标题,使用会话, - verbose,-v 等。
  • - 下载总是暗示 - 遵循(重定向是遵循的)。
  • 如果身体尚未完整,则HTTPie将退出状态码 1 (错误) 下载。
  • Accept-Encoding 不能用 - download 来设置。

19流响应

响应将以允许流式传输的块形式下载并打印 和大文件下载,而不使用太多的内存。但是,什么时候 颜色和格式被应用,整个响应是缓冲的,只有 然后立即处理。

19.1禁用缓冲

您可以使用 - stream,-S 标志来使两件事情发生:

  1. The output is flushed in much smaller chunks without any buffering, which makes HTTPie behave kind of like tail -f for URLs.
  2. Streaming becomes enabled even when the output is prettified: It will be applied to each line of the response and flushed immediately. This makes it possible to have a nice output for long-lived requests, such as one to the Twitter streaming API.

19.2示例用例

优化的流式响应:

$ http –stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track='Justin Bieber'

小批量流输出alá tail -f

# Send each new tweet (JSON object) mentioning "Apple" to another
# server as soon as it arrives from the Twitter streaming API:
$ http –stream -f -a YOUR-TWITTER-NAME https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json track=Apple 
| while read tweet; do echo "$tweet" | http POST example.org/tweets ; done

20次会议

默认情况下,HTTPie所做的每个请求完全独立于任何 以前的同一主机。

但是,HTTPie还支持持久化 会话通过 - session = SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH 选项。在一个会议上, 自定义标题 - 除了以 Content - If - 开头的标题之外, 授权和Cookie (由服务器手动指定或发送)在请求之间持续存在 到同一个主机。

# Create a new session
$ http –session=/tmp/session.json example.org API-Token:123

# Re-use an existing session — API-Token will be set: $ http –session=/tmp/session.json example.org

所有会话数据,包括凭据,Cookie数据, 并且自定义标题以纯文本形式存储。 这意味着会话文件也可以在文本中手动创建和编辑 编辑器 - 它们是常规JSON。

20.1命名会话

您可以为每个主机创建一个或多个命名的会话。例如,这是怎么回事 您可以为 example.org 创建名为 user1 的新会话:

$ http –session=user1 -a user1:password example.org X-Foo:Bar

从现在开始,您可以通过其名称引用会话。当你选择 再次使用会话,任何以前使用的授权和HTTP标头 将自动设置:

$ http –session=user1 example.org

要创建或重用不同的会话,只需指定一个不同的名称:

$ http –session=user2 -a user2:password example.org X-Bar:Foo

Named sessions' data is stored in JSON files in the directory ~/.httpie/sessions/<host>/<name>.json (%APPDATA%\httpie\sessions&lt;host>&lt;name>.json on Windows).

20.2匿名会话

您可以直接指定会话文件的路径,而不是名称。这个 允许跨多个主机重复使用会话:

$ http –session=/tmp/session.json example.org
$ http –session=/tmp/session.json admin.example.org
$ http –session=~/.httpie/sessions/another.example.org/test.json example.org
$ http –session-read-only=/tmp/session.json example.org

20.3只读会话

使用现有会话文件,而不从请求/响应更新它 交换一旦创建,通过指定会话名称 - session-read-only = SESSION_NAME_OR_PATH

21 Config

HTTPie使用简单的JSON配置文件。

21.1配置文件位置

The default location of the configuration file is ~/.httpie/config.json (or %APPDATA%\httpie\config.json on Windows). The config directory location can be changed by setting the HTTPIE_CONFIG_DIR environment variable. To view the exact location run http –debug.

21.2可配置选项

JSON文件包含一个包含以下键的对象:

21.2.1   default_options

应该应用的默认选项的 Array (默认为空) 每次调用HTTPie。

例如,您可以使用此选项更改默认样式和输出 选项:default_options:[–style = fruity,–body] 另一个有用的 默认选项可以是 - session = default来始终使HTTPie 使用会话(一个名为 default 将自动使用)。 或者您可以将隐式请求内容类型从JSON更改为表单 将 - form 添加到列表中。

21.2.2   meta

HTTPie在此自动存储其中的一些元数据。请不要更改。

21.3取消设置以前指定的选项

从配置文件的默认选项,或指定任何其他方式, 可以通过传递的 - no-OPTION 参数来取消设置特定的调用 在命令行上(例如, - no-style - no-session )。

脚本编写

从shell脚本使用HTTPie时,可以方便地设置 - 检查状态标志。它指示HTTPie退出并出现错误 HTTP状态是 3xx 4xx 5xx 之一。退出状态将会 是 3 (除非 - 遵循设置), 4 5 分别

#!/bin/bash

if http –check-status –ignore-stdin –timeout=2.5 HEAD example.org/health &> /dev/null; then echo 'OK!' else case $? in 2) echo 'Request timed out!' ;; 3) echo 'Unexpected HTTP 3xx Redirection!' ;; 4) echo 'HTTP 4xx Client Error!' ;; 5) echo 'HTTP 5xx Server Error!' ;; 6) echo 'Exceeded –max-redirects=<n> redirects!' ;; *) echo 'Other Error!' ;; esac fi

22.1最佳做法

自动读取 stdin 的默认行为通常不是 在非交互式调用期间是可取的。你最想要的 使用 - ignore-stdin 选项来禁用它。

这是一个常见的问题,没有这个选项,HTTPie似乎挂起来。 发生什么是当例如从cron作业调用HTTPie时, stdin 未连接到终端。 因此,适用于重定向输入的规则,即HTTPie开始阅读 期望请求机构将通过。 而且由于没有数据,也没有 EOF ,它将被卡住。所以除非你是 将一些数据传输到HTTPie,这个标志应该在脚本中使用。

另外,将默认的 30 第二个 - timeout 替换为 适合你的东西。

23 Meta

23.1界面设计

命令参数的语法与实际的HTTP密切对应 通过电线发送请求。它的优点是很容易记住 并阅读。通常可以将HTTP请求转换为HTTPie 参数列表只是通过内联请求元素。例如,比较这个 HTTP请求:

POST /collection HTTP/1.1
X-API-Key: 123
User-Agent: Bacon/1.0
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

name=value&name2=value2

使用发送它的HTTPie命令:

$ http -f POST example.org/collection 
X-API-Key:123
User-Agent:Bacon/1.0
name=value
name2=value2
请注意,元素的顺序和语法都非常相似, 并且只有一小部分命令用于控制HTTPie和 不直接对应于请求的任何部分(这里只有 -f 请求HTTPie发送表单请求)。

这两种模式, - pretty = all (终端默认)和 - pretty = none (默认为重定向输出),允许用户友好的交互式使用 以及HTTPie用作通用HTTP客户端的脚本的使用。

由于HTTPie仍然在大量开发中,现有的命令行 语法,一些 - OPTIONS 可能稍稍改变 HTTPie达到其最终版本 1.0 。所有更改都记录在 更改日志

23.2用户支持

请使用以下支持渠道:

23.3相关项目

23.3.1   Dependencies

在引擎盖下,HTTPie使用这两个惊人的库:

23.3.2   HTTPie friends

使用以下工具,HTTPie效果非常好:

  • jq - CLI JSON处理器 与HTTPie
  • 配合使用
  • http-prompt - 具有自动完成功能的HTTPie的交互式外壳 和命令语法高亮显示

23.3.3   Alternatives

  • httpcat - 一个较低级别的姊妹实用程序 的HTTPie用于在命令行上构建原始HTTP请求。
  • 卷曲 - 瑞士刀命令行工具, 一个用于使用URL传输数据的特殊库。

23.4贡献

请参阅 CONTRIBUTING.rst

23.5更改日志

请参阅 CHANGELOG

23.6图稿

请参阅 claudiatd / httpie-artwork

23.7许可证

BSD-3条款:许可证

23.8作者

Jakub Roztocil @jakubroztocil )创建了HTTPie和这些好人 贡献了。




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